Wellness & Disease Education – Hypertension (BP)

hypertension blog

Hypertension is a condition whereby a person’s blood pressure is elevated. This is due to increased force of blood pushing through the blood vessels which is caused by increased narrowing of the arteries that is blood pressure which is above 120 over 80


Hypertension is generally a silent condition and many people don’t usually experience any symptoms  hence the name the Silent Killer and it may take years or  decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious

Symptoms of severe hypertension

Chest pains



Blood spots in the eyes (subconjuctival hemorrhage)


 Causes of hypertension

There are 2 types of hypertension and these are:

(i) Essential /Primary hypertension

(ii) Secondary hypertension

 Essential / Primary hypertension

Develops over time and a number of factors play a role in the development of essential hypertension and these include :

Genes: some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension and this may be due to mutated genes or genetic abnormalities inherited from parents

Age: Individuals over the age of 65 are more at risk of hypertension

Being obese: being obese can lead to some cardiac issues like hypertension

High alcohol consumption: women who habitually drink more than 1 drink per day and men who have more than 2 drinks per day may be at an increased risk for hypertension

Living a sedentary lifestyle: lowered levels of activity /fitness can lead to hypertension.

Being diabetic /having a metabolic syndrome: living with this disease predisposes a person to hypertension

High sodium intake

 Secondary hypertension

Occurs quickly and can be more severe than primary hypertension  and many factors lead to secondary hypertension. These include :

Kidney disease

Obstructive sleep apnea

Congenital heart defects

Problems with your heart

Side effects of drugs use of illegal drugs

Adrenal gland problems

Certain endocrine tumors


Treatment of hypertension depends on the type of hypertension

 Primary hypertension

Here lifestyle changes may help reduce a person’s high blood pressure and if it is not really effective medication may be prescribed .

 Secondary hypertension

 Here of the hypertension is caused by an underlying condition, treatment will focus on that other condition

Medications for hypertension

Beta blockers


ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin II receptor blockers

Calcium channel blockers

Alpha 2 agonists

Complications /effects on the body

-Damaged arteries

-Damaged heart eg heart failure,  heart attack, sudden cardiac death

-Damaged brain – temporary blockage of blood to the brain


Developing a healthy diet– this helps to reduce complications and managing hypertension  under control.

Increase physical activity,  that is about 30 minutes five times per week

Managing stress- exercise is a great way to manage stress. Other ways include yoga, meditation, deep breathing , massage,  tai chi

Quiting smoking and limiting alcohol

Reducing sodium intake by eating more fresh foods, fruits and limiting fast foods

Monitoring your blood pressure regularly

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